Wednesday, August 31, 2011

Scholarly 19th cent. NT Books for sale!

Here is an example of some interesting volumes that others might want:


Analecta Theologica  - William Trollope (1842) 'New ed.' - 2 vols.

Click to Enlarge and backbutton to return

I had a friend in printing bus. trim some of these books, and I rebound them.
Other than minimal (expected) foxing, and slight waving of textblock,
solid, like-new condition.  8vo quarter-leather new front/back and endpapers:


 Commentary: Gospels/Acts - Benson (1850) Vol IV (key vol. ) large 8vo

This came to me like an ancient spellbook (its also huge but surprisingly light);
I restored the Spine and board connections with leather, reinforcing with heavy linen and stitching, and lacquered the boards.  I used minimal intervention here to preserve the look and feel.

- Bloomfield (1839) 2 vols. 8vo
This is the definitive Greek NT (GNT) with extensive notes in English for the 1800-1850s.  These were varathaned and only hinges were reinforced with carpenter's glue.  Great shape for their age, hardly read if at all. 


Greek Testament - Wordsworth (1859) 2 vols. LARGE 8vo (see photo) 4vo?

 This is the rarest of rare editions of this 7-edition run.
That white is real virgin-vellum, an expensive fad never to be reproduced again.
Crappy 2 vol. sets of this book (without the vellum) are typically priced between $200-800 AM. The vellum is like new, and so are the volumes. Heavy gold titling.
I loved these so much I built a box for them. The golden age of British NT scholarship, never to be repeated.

If you are interested in any of these lovely books, leave a note below and/or email me at

Friday, August 19, 2011

Constantine and Crispus (1): What is known?

Emperor Constantine

Emperor Constantine had a son Flavius Julius Crispus (b. 305),  who was a co-regent with his father until his unfortunate death in 326.

Perhaps the best and most accurate summary of  Crispus' death is given at Roman, (from Hans Pohlsander) as far as it can be substantiated and documented:
"Crispus' end was as tragic as his career had been brilliant. His own father ordered him to be put to death. (16) We know the year of this sad event, 326, from the Consularia Constantinopolitana,(17) and the place, Pola in Istria, from Ammianus Marcellinus. (18)  The circumstances, however, are less clear. Zosimus (6th c.) (19) and Zonaras (12th c.)  (20)  both report that Crispus and his stepmother Fausta were involved in an illicit relationship. There may be as much gossip as fact in their reports, but it is certain that at some time during the same year the emperor ordered the death of his own wife as well, (21)  and the two cases must be considered together. (22) That Crispus and Fausta plotted treason is reported by Gregory of Tours, (23)  but not very believable. We must resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus (24)  that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins. A similar claim had already been made by Julian the Apostate. (25)  We must also, I think, reject the suggestion of Guthrie (26)  that the emperor acted in the interest of "dynastic legitimacy," that is, that he removed his illegitimate first-born son in order to secure the succession for his three legitimate younger sons. But Crispus must have committed, or at least must have been suspected of having committed, some especially shocking offense to earn him a sentence of death from his own father. He also suffered damnatio memoriae, (27) his honor was never restored, and history has not recorded the fate of his wife and his child (or children).

16.  Hieron. De Vir. Ill. 80; Euseb.-Hieron. Chron. Olymp. 276 (ed. Fotheringham 313; ed. Helm 231); Aur. Vict. Caes. 41.11.
17.  Sub anno 326 (MGH, AA IX 232).
18.  14.11.20.
19.  2.29.1-2.
20.  13.2.38-41.
21.  Eutropius 10.6.3 (MGH, AA II 174; ad. Santini 67; ed. Friedhelm L. Müller [Stuttgart 19951 142); Aur. Vict. Epit. 41.11-12.
22.  Paschoud, Cinq études 37-38, and others before him.
23.  Hist. Franc., 1.34 in Migne, PL LXXI 179; 1.36 in MGH, SRM 1st ed. I 51; ibid. 2nd ed. I.1 26-27,
24.  2.29.3-4.
25.   Caes. 336A-B.
26.  "The Execution of Crispus" 327-28.
27.   CIL II 4107; CIL III 7172; CIL V 8030; CIL IX 6386a; CIL X 517 = Dessau, ILS 708; CIL X 678 = Dessau, ILS 710.

Hans Pohlsander also gives us a concise bibliography for Crispus:


Recent and concise accounts of the life and career of Crispus, with reference to the scattered primary sources, are the following:
A. H. M. Jones, J. R. Martindale, and J. Morris, The Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire I (Cambridge, 1971) 233.
Adolf Lippold in Der kleine Pauly V (1975) 1592.
Timothy D. Barnes, The New Empire of Diocletian and Constantine (Cambridge MA, 1982) 7-8, 44, and 83-84.
Ingemar König, Origo Constantini: Anonymus Valesianus (Trier, 1987) 136-38.
Dietmar Kienast, Römische Kaisertabelle, 2nd ed. (Darmstadt, 1996) 305-306.
The account by Otto Seeck, RE IV.2 (1901) 1722-24, has become in part obsolete.
More extensive or specialized studies are:
Josef Steinhausen, "Hieronymus und Laktanz in Trier," TZ 20 (1951) 126-54.
Patrick Guthrie, "The Execution of Crispus," Phoenix 20 (1966) 325-31.
Timothy D. Barnes, "Lactantius and Constantine," JRS 63 (1973) 29-46.
François Paschoud, Cinq études sur Zosime (Paris, 1975) 24-39.
Hans A. Pohlsander, "Crispus: Brilliant Career and Tragic End," Historia 33 (1984) 79-106.
Klaus Kremer, "Laktanz: Erzieher von Konstantins Sohn Crispus zu Trier," Kurtrierisches Jahrbuch 25 (1985) 35-59.
Samuel N. C. Lieu and Dominic Montserrat, edd., From Constantine to Julian: Pagan and Byzantine Views. A Source History (London 1996). Contains translation of and commentary on the Anonymus Valesianus, Origo Constantini.
Additionally references to Crispus will be found in all of the books on Constantine.

This gives us a good start for investigating the circumstances of Crispus' death in more detail.   As we will see shortly, there is a lot more to say about this than a short summary can provide.


Sunday, August 14, 2011

Reading Critical Apparatus: standard signs


The following symbols are from Metzger's Commentary for the UBS text:

Variant Ratings: 
{A} {A} The letter {A} signifies that the text is certain.

{B} {B} The letter {B} indicates that the text is almost certain.
{C} {C} The letter {C} indicates that the Committee had difficulty in deciding which variant to place in the text.
{D} {D} The letter {D}, which occurs only rarely, indicates that the Committee had great difficulty in arriving at a decision. In fact, among the {D} decisions sometimes none of the variant readings commended itself as original, and therefore the only recourse was to print the least unsatisfactory reading.

Class/Group Symbols:
Byz The reading of the majority of the Byzantine witnesses.
Lect The reading of the majority of the lectionaries selected, together with the text of the edition published by Apostoliki Diakonia, Athens.

 P = Papyrus.

al     -  alia (other witnesses)
bis       -   twice
cf.      confer (compare)
i. e.    -   id est (that is)
e. g.   -   exempli gratia (for example)

vid vid the most probably reading of a manuscript, where the state of its preservation makes a complete verification impossible; or the apparent support of a Church Father for the reading cited, where stylistic and contextual factors do not permit complete certainty.

acc. to   -   acc. to Jerome variant reading of manuscript(s) according to the witness of Jerome

acc. to Irenaeus acc. to Irenaeus variant reading of manuscript(s) according to the witness of Irenaeus

Witness Superscripts: 
1 1,2,3,c Successive correctors of a manuscript in chronological sequence to the extent this can be determined. The symbol c at the end of the sequence refers to the latest corrector. Correlative with *.

* The original reading of a manuscript (when the reading of a manuscript has been corrected); correlative with c.
a a Typically used to indicate the first corrector’s hand for א .
c c indicates the corrector or the last of successive correctors of a manuscript.

Versions (Early Translations): 
it   -  Old Latin
vg  -  Vulgate
syr -  Syriac.
cop  -  Coptic.
goth  -   Gothic version.
  arm  -  (Künzle; Zohrab). Armenian, from the fifth century
eth  -  Ethiopic, from about 500. The agreement of the following editions; for Rev the Hoffman edition is taken as the basis.

special superscripts:

mss   -    mss manuscripts of an early version, or of a Church Father’s text, when differing from the edited text.
gr   -    gr a citation from a Greek fragment of the work of a Greek Church Father which is preserved complete only in a translation.

lat    -   lat a Latin translation of a work by a Greek Church Father which has not survived entire in its original form.
mg   -    mg textual evidence contained in the margin of a manuscript.

txt    -    txt the text of a manuscript of the New Testament when it differs from another reading given in the margin (mg), or in the commetnary section (com) which accompanies the text of a Church Father.

mss   -  mss   -  manuscripts.
ms   -   ms manuscript of an early version, or of a Church Father’s text, when differing from the edited text.

p   -    syrp (Pusey/Gwilliam; Gwilliam/Pinkerton/Kilgour; cf. Aland/Juckel). Peshitta, first half of fifth century.
pal    syrpal (Lewis/Gibson, Palestinian Syriac Texts; and others). Palestinian Syriac, from about the sixth century.
h    syrh (White; Bensly; Vööbus; Aland; Aland/Juckel). Harklensis (A.D. 616).
h with *   syrh with * A Syriac reading in the text enclosed between an asterisk and a metobelos.
hmg syrhmg A Syriac Variant reading in the margin. Harklensis (A.D. 616).

sa   copsa Sahidic (Hintze/Schenke; Horner; Kasser; Quecke; Schüssler; Thompson)
bo   copbo Bohairic (Horner)
fay    copfay Fayyumic (various fragments)

ro    ethro Roman edition of 1548–1549. (Ethiopic).
pp     ethpp (Pell Platt [based on the Rome edition of 1548–49)

Early Christian Writers:
Origen (d. 253/254)
Hippolytus (d. 235)
Ambrosiaster (d. after 384)
Ambrose (d. 397)
Basil, the Great (d. 379)
Clement, of Alexandria (d. before 215)
(John) Chrysostom (d. 407)
Cyprian (d. 258)
Cyril, of Alexandria (d. 444)
Irenaeus (d. II)
Lucifer, of Calaris (d. 370/371)
Marcionacc. to Tertullian/Origen/Adamantius/Epiphanius (d. II)
Pelagius (d. after 418)
  Augustine (d. 430)
Speculum (d. V)
  John-Damascus (d. before 754)
  Methodius (d. III)

 Tertullian (d. after 220)
  Theodoret, of Cyrrhus (d. about 466)
  Hilary (d. 367)
  Maximus-Confessor (d. 662)
  Valentiniansacc. to Irenaeus/Hippolytus (d. II)
  PtolemyFlora acc. to Irenaeus (d. II)
  Jerome (d. 419/420)
  Sedulius Scotus (d. IX)
  Eusebius, of Caesarea (d. 339)

Saturday, August 6, 2011

Sturz (4): Byzantine-Papyrus Readings Acts-Rev.

Here is the continuation of List 1: Distinctively Byz./Papyrus Alignments for Acts (i.e., Byz readings with Pap. support cont.)


4:33  μεγαλη δυναμει                     p45
7:14  τον πατερα αυτου Ιακωβ       p45
9:3   περιησταραψεν αυτον φως    p45
  9:3  απο του ουανου                     p45
9:38  οκνησαι...αυτων             p45
10:37  αρξαμενον                    p45
11:11  ημην                            p45
13:26  απεσταλη                   p45
14:15  τον θεον τον ζωντα  p45
16:16  πυθωνος                     p45
16:39  εξελθειν                     p45
17:13  σαλευοντες               p45
23:12  τινες των Ιουδαιων   p48

-----------  Here are the remaining Variation Units from List 1: ---


10:14  επικαλεστονται                  p46
16:23  και της εκκλησιας ολης     p46

1st Cor.

4:11  γυμνητευομεν και        p46
5:10  η αρπαξιν                     p46
7:5    συνερχεσθε                   p46
7:7     χαρισμα εχει                p46
7:7b  ος μεν ...ος δε                p46
9:7     εκ του καρπου              p46
9:21   κερδησω ανομους        p46
10:8   επεσον                          p46
11:26  το ποτηριον τουτο      p46

2nd Cor.

9:10  αυξησαι                  p46


4:31  αρα            p46


2:12  εν τω καιρω            p46
5:9    πνευματος               p46


1:14  τον λογον λαλειν    p46


3:16  τω κυριω                 p46
3:22  τον θεον                  p46
4:12  πεπληρωμενοι         p46


3:3      δοξης ουτος           p13
10:17  μνησθω                  p46
10:38  εκ πιστεως             p13
11:4    αυτου του θεου      p13
11:32  γαρ με                    p13
12:25  τον επι της γης παραιτησαμενοι  p46
12:25b  πολλω     p46

1st Peter

2:5  τω θεω                  p72
3:7   εκκοπτεσθαι        p72
5:8   οτι  ο αντιδικος  p72

2nd Peter

2:4   σειραις             p72
2:5   αλλ' ογδοον     p72    


25    και μεγαλωσυνη   p72
25b  εξουοια                 p72


9:20   δυναται            p47
10:2   βιβλιον             p47
10:8   ανεωγμενον     p47
11:2   εκβ. εξω           p47
11:6   παση πληγη     p47
11:12  ηκουσα           p47
11:19  διαθηκης του κυριου  p47
12:7    αυτου             p47
12:9    σατανας         p47
12:13  αρρενα            p47
13:13  επι την γην     p47
14:8    εκ του             p47
15:8    εκ του             p47
16:3    εν τη θαλασση - p47
16:10  εμασσωντο -  p47

---------------------- END ------------

If anyone wants more detailed apparatus for a VU ask me.